Meta-analysis is a statistical technique widely used in evidence-based medicine for analytically combining the findings from independent clinical trials to provide an overall estimation of a treatment effectiveness. In this talk, I will first give an overview of the history and the main procedure of conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. I will then present some statistical challenges in meta-analysis, and provide our new developments in this direction to advance the literature. Our proposed methods not only improve the existing ones significantly but also share the same virtue of the simplicity. They are also capable to serve as ‘‘rules of thumb’’ and will be widely applied in evidence-based medicine.